QCL-based frequency metrology from the mid-infrared to the THz range: a review

Quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) are becoming a key tool for plenty of applications, from the mid-infrared (mid-IR) to the THz range. Progress in related areas, such as the development of ultra-low-loss crystalline microresonators, optical frequency standards, and optical fiber networks for time and frequency dissemination, is paving the way for unprecedented applications in many fields. For most demanding applications, a thorough control of QCLs emission must be achieved. In the last few years, QCLs’ unique spectral features have been unveiled, while multifrequency QCLs have been demonstrated. Ultra-narrow frequency linewidths are necessary for metrological
applications, ranging from cold molecules interaction and ultra-high sensitivity spectroscopy to infrared/THz metrology. A review of the present status of research in
this field is presented, with a view of perspectives and future applications.

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